What is Obesity?
Usually, a person who is overweight is assumed to have obesity. In technical term, Obesity is the condition in which fatty tissue stores are excessive. Some serious chronic illnesses are associated with Obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, hypertension, sleep apnea, degenerative joint disease leading to increased risk of premature death.
Obesity and Body Mass Index Calculations:-
The body mass index (BMI) is a scientific method to measure & define weight, overweight, obesity etc for both male and females. The current consensus definitions have established the following values for BMI:
- A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal weight
- A BMI of 25.0-29.9 is considered overweight
- A BMI of 30.0-39.9 is considered obese
- A BMI of 40.0 or higher is considered severely (or morbidly) obese
- A BMI of 35.0 or higher in the presence of at least one other significant illness (diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, hypertension, sleep apnea, or degenerative joint disease) is also classified as morbid obesity.
Using BMI Calculator, one may determine the level of weight loss. If you are having BMI 25 or more than 25, you are required to take preventive measures to reduce over-weight.
What is Central Obesity?
Central obesity is also called “Apple-shaped” or “masculine” obesity and occurs when fat deposits around the abdomen. It is associated with higher morbidity than peripheral obesity. It may also lead to cardiovascular disease and may develop metabolic syndrome & diabetes. Central Obesity results through increased blood sugars, cholesterol increased insulin secretion, hypertension & atherosclerosis.
Causes of Obesity:-
There is no specific reason for obesity but some causes may include;-
- Genetics: Derives through the genes
- Psychology: Due to emotional problems and depression
- Lifestyle: poor diet or low levels of physical activity
Health Risks from Obesity
Obesity is associated with the serious health risks . These may include:-
- Heart Disease:- When plaque (fatty material) get collected on the wall of the coronary arteries (which supply blood and oxygen to the heart), it narrows the function of coronary arteries which reduce the blood flow to the heart. So chances of Heart attack or heart disease may higher with the increasing BMI. Obesity may also lead to congestive heart failure which is a serious condition as the heart stops pumping enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
- Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):- It occurs when blood pushing against the arteries wall at the high level. High obesity will also increase the chances of high blood pressure.
- Stroke:- Obesity may lead to developing fatty tissue which may form the blood clot. If the clot is close to your brain, chances of stroke will higher due to the blocked flow of blood & oxygen. Increasing BMI along with the obesity also increases the chances of stroke.
- Type 2 Diabetes: As we know, Body makes insulin to move the blood sugar into cells. But in type 2 diabetes, the body does not a response to insulin which may result in stroke, kidney disease, blindness etc. more than 80% of people suffering from type 2 diabetes are overweight.
- Metabolic Syndrome: It is a condition having three or more risk factors including Large Waistline (abdominal obesity), Abnormal blood fat levels (low HDL Cholesterol), high blood pressure, higher blood sugar levels.
- Cancer: Obesity may enhance the risk of colon, breast, endometrial, gallbladder cancers.
- Gastroesophageal Reflux or Heartburn: This may lead to Barrett's esophagus, a precancerous change in the lining of the esophagus and causing esophageal cancer.
- Sleep Apnea: the Obese person may have the fat around the neck due to which he or she may face a problem of breathing while sleeping. It is risky as short periods of stopped breathing during sleep may be life taking the risk.
- Abnormal Blood Fats- Abnormal Blood fats include high amounts of triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This is directly associated with the heart disease.
- Reproductive Problems:- It may cause menstrual irregularity or infertility in women
- Gallstones: Gallstones are hard particles which form due to high cholesterol level. Obese people have the greater chance of having gallstones. They may also have an enlarged gallbladder that may not function well.
- Osteoarthritis:- Due to overweight, joints of the knee, hips, lower back weakens and causes pain.
Treatment of Obesity:-
Treatments or guidance are offered on the basis of the obesity level a guy is having. No dietary approach has received the long term success so far for morbidly obese.
Non- Surgical treatments: includes Diet modification, medications, social support programs etc. But these programs remain in-effective as people grow weight after some time. losing weight is temporary and no drugs have shown effective results too far for severe obesity.
Bariatric surgery helps to reduce weight and prevent type 2 diabetes by restricting food intake.
One should not neglect the obesity and should take preventive measures to control the severe obesity.