Laparoscopic Surgery for Achalasia Cardia
What is Achalasia Cardia?
Achalasia Cardia is the failure of (LES) lower esophageal sphincter to relax and let the food pass down to the stomach which leads to difficulty in swallowing food. It makes hard to pass the foods and liquids to the stomach.
The Esophagus is the muscular tube which helps pass food and liquid to stomach from the throat. As we know, the wall of the esophagus is made up of several layers of tissue, mucous membrane, muscle, and connective tissue. The stomach is a J-shaped organ in the upper abdomen which helps to digest and processes nutrients (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fast, proteins, water) and to pass the waste out of the body. After this, partly-digestive food will move to the small intestine and then to the large intestine.
Achalasia is caused by abnormal function of the nerves controlling the esophagus muscles and the valve or sphincter between the esophagus and stomach.
Symptoms of achalasia include difficulty in swallowing food , regurgitation of food , coughing while lying down, ,retrosternal discomfort or heart burn .
Diagnosis of Achalasia Cardia:-
As we have mentioned, Analysing the symptoms of Achalasia Cardia is very hard so diagnosing it an accurate manner is critical. Following are the given tests to diagnose the disease:-
- Barium Swallow:- It is series of X-rays to review the esophagus and stomach. In this process, a patient is asked to drink the liquid containing barium (silver-white metallic compound) with coats the esophagus and stomach, and images are taken. This procedure is also called an upper GI series. In people who have achalasia, the X-rays reveal a dilated (enlarged) esophagus and a narrowing of the lower end so that it resembles a bird's beak. With achalasia, the barium also stays in the esophagus longer than normal before passing into the stomach.
- Esophagoscopy:- It is done to check esophageal cancer which can also obstruct the food passing system in the abdomen. An esophagoscope (thin tube-like the tool with light & lens) is inserted through the mouth or nose and down the throat into the esophagus. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
- Esophageal Manometry:- In this process, a thin tube is inserted into the esophagus which is connected to a pressure recorder and it measures the muscle contractions of the esophagus when the patients swallow. Achalasia can be diagnosed at an early stage through this Manometry.